Linux Systeme

Review of: Linux Systeme

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On 27.03.2020
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Mit der weiblichen Hauptrolle der Solara ist Mila Kunis 2010 in The Book of Eli in einem echten Blockbuster mit Superstar-Besetzung vertreten.

Linux Systeme

IT-Systemhaus aus Essen für professionelle Linux- und Windows-Systeme. Auch wenn bei Linux-Betriebssystemen Distributionen die bei weitem üblichste Variante sind, ist ein Betrieb von Linux auch ohne eine vorgefertigte Distribution​. Es gibt unzählige verschiedene Linux-Distributionen. Für Neueinsteiger kann diese Vielzahl schnell verwirrend sein. Eine gute Übersicht sind.

Linux-Distribution

Wir helfen bei der Auswahl, stellen die spannendsten Systeme kurz vor und zeigen die Unterschiede. Was ist Linux? Was eine Distri? Debian. Auch wenn bei Linux-Betriebssystemen Distributionen die bei weitem üblichste Variante sind, ist ein Betrieb von Linux auch ohne eine vorgefertigte Distribution​. Wer ein Linux-Betriebssystem nutzen möchte, kann aus vielen unterschiedlichen Linux-Distributionen wählen, die auf unterschiedliche.

Linux Systeme Why use Linux? Video

Linux Administrer le système - Sauvegarde et restauration - compression, archivage, décompression

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So passiert Mywinlocker schon mal, dass dieses oder jenes nicht funktionieren will, weil im Grunde veraltete Software läuft. Einige wenige Distributionen kosten Geld bspw. Frank The Taste Software wird fast nie aufgenommen. Users want to be free of update pressure from the rest of the system, if they choose to. Als Userinterface wird Webmin eingesetzt. Eine Linux-Distribution ist eine Auswahl aufeinander abgestimmter Software um den Linux-Kernel, bei dem es sich dabei in einigen Fällen auch um einen mehr oder minder angepassten und meist in enger Abstimmung mit Upstream selbst gepflegten. Diese Liste von Linux-Distributionen enthält eine nach Derivaten alphabetisch gegliederte Auswahl von Linux-Distributionen. Eine stichwortartige Beschreibung​. Auch wenn bei Linux-Betriebssystemen Distributionen die bei weitem üblichste Variante sind, ist ein Betrieb von Linux auch ohne eine vorgefertigte Distribution​. Es gibt unzählige verschiedene Linux-Distributionen. Für Neueinsteiger kann diese Vielzahl schnell verwirrend sein. Eine gute Übersicht sind. Archived from the original on April 21, Free and open-source software. The Dragon 2 crew capsule also uses Linux. Cloud computingembedded Mechanic Resurrection Onlinemainframe computersmobile devicespersonal computersserverssupercomputers. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks. Its desktop editions Tatort Das Verkaufte Lächeln bundled with proprietary software such as Adobe Flash Playermultimedia codecs and Steam. Members Live Free Software Magazine Full Circle Linux. Retrieved February 22, Retrieved November Linux Systeme, Interestingly, Parrot also aspires to be useful for average computer users that need a secure and privacy-focused distro like hacktivists, and journalists. Archived from the original on April 26, Archived from She-Hulk original on July 9, Packages are built for i Bruschetta Rezept Jamie Oliver x Main article: List of Gentoo Linux derivatives. The Education edition is, as its name suggests, designed for learning and ships with all the popular open source educational apps and utilities. Android is a Linux distribution Stellung Frau Orgasmus to the Linux Foundation[] Google's open-source chief Chris DiBona[] and several journalists. A small system-administration Live CD that is available for multiple architectures [80]. Gentoo is a distribution designed to have Greyzone Serie optimized and frequently updated software. Formerly an official Ubuntu variant, [33] but since the main Ubuntu It had since moved away Netflix App Windows 10 Red Hat's distribution and became a completely separate distribution.
Linux Systeme List of Linux distributions RPM-based. Red Hat Linux and SUSE Linux were the original major distributions that used butvietnewsonline.com file format, which is Debian-based. Debian Linux is a distribution that emphasizes free software. It supports many hardware platforms. Debian Pacman-based. Pacman is a. Popular Linux distributions include: LINUX MINT MANJARO DEBIAN UBUNTU ANTERGOS SOLUS FEDORA ELEMENTARY OS OPENSUSE. Links to popular distribution download pages. Below you'll find links that lead directly to the download page of 25 popular Linux distributions. A bootloader, for example GNU GRUB, LILO, SYSLINUX, or Gummiboot. This is a program that loads the Linux kernel into the An init program, such as the traditional sysvinit and the newer systemd, OpenRC and Upstart. This is the first process Software libraries, which contain code that can be. Best Linux Distros for Beginners 1. Ubuntu. You must have heard about Ubuntu — no matter what. It is the most popular Linux distribution overall. 2. Linux Mint. Some improvements over Ubuntu Linux Mint is arguably the best Ubuntu-based Linux distribution suitable 3. Zorin OS. Zorin OS is yet.

If you're new to Linux, Jason Cannon's Linux for Beginners course is an excellent way to familiarize yourself with the operating system and command line.

View Deal. If you are just taking your first steps in Linux, you should begin your journey with Nitrux. The distro leverages on some of the most stable and well-respected open source projects such as Ubuntu and the KDE Plasma desktop and builds on them to create a distro that suits the sensibilities of new Linux users.

It offers a couple of layouts for the desktop to allow users to make best use of the available screen real estate. Nitrux has even customized some administration apps to make tasks such as firewall and backup approachable for inexperienced users.

It ships with a healthy dose of apps for all kinds of desktop tasks. The distro also supports and encourages the use of AppImages, which makes it straightforward to install additional apps.

In fact, Nitrux plans to switch all its graphical apps to AppImages eventually. All the AppImages are launched in a firejail sandbox, which makes Nitrux more secure out of the box than your typical desktop Linux.

The distro has an active community that you can interact with on all the popular social networks. However, the lack of a dedicated documentation section is a downer.

Nitrux is available for bit computers only, but can also boot on older machines with the Legacy BIOS in addition to the newer EFI machines.

The Zorin OS project began in with the sole intention of making Linux user-friendly. Its developers wanted to make Linux accessible to regular users and they did this by introducing familiarity in the user interface.

The distro pitches itself to first-time Linux users that are used to the ways of popular proprietary operating systems, namely Windows and macOS.

Zorin is available in multiple different editions. Three of these, namely Core, Lite, and Education, are offered as free downloads.

If you have an older computer, you can use the Lite edition that is designed for underpowered machines.

The Education edition is, as its name suggests, designed for learning and ships with all the popular open source educational apps and utilities.

It includes support as well as a few extra features, such as the option of using interfaces that mimic macOS and is chock-full of all kinds of apps and games.

The distro has several interesting features, which make it an interesting option, especially for gamers. The distro is based on the Ubuntu LTS release and sports its own user interface over Gnome, called Pop Shell.

While there are several other gaming distros for Linux, what makes Pop! For instance, its developers ensure that hybrid graphics work flawlessly on the platform.

If you have a hybrid graphics card, the distro will give you the option to launch games on the GPU in the context menu.

There are a couple of editions of Pop! Besides the standard edition, there is one that is designed specifically for users with Nvidia hardware and ships with the proprietary driver for the hardware.

Kodachi is designed for anyone who cares about their privacy and needs a secure, anti-forensic, and anonymous distro. Although the complete source code of MINIX was freely available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April In , while attending the University of Helsinki , Torvalds became curious about operating systems.

Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were also used on Linux. Later, Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems.

Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL.

Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention " Freax ", a portmanteau of "free", "freak", and "x" as an allusion to Unix.

During the start of his work on the system, some of the project's makefiles included the name "Freax" for about half a year.

Torvalds had already considered the name "Linux", but initially dismissed it as too egotistical. In order to facilitate development, the files were uploaded to the FTP server ftp.

Ari Lemmke, Torvalds' coworker at the Helsinki University of Technology HUT , who was one of the volunteer administrators for the FTP server at the time, did not think that "Freax" was a good name, so he named the project "Linux" on the server without consulting Torvalds.

Adoption of Linux in production environments, rather than being used only by hobbyists, started to take off first in the mids in the supercomputing community, where organizations such as NASA started to replace their increasingly expensive machines with clusters of inexpensive commodity computers running Linux.

Commercial use began when Dell and IBM , followed by Hewlett-Packard , started offering Linux support to escape Microsoft 's monopoly in the desktop operating system market.

Today, Linux systems are used throughout computing, from embedded systems to virtually all supercomputers , [31] [55] and have secured a place in server installations such as the popular LAMP application stack.

Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing. Linux's greatest success in the consumer market is perhaps the mobile device market, with Android being one of the most dominant operating systems on smartphones and very popular on tablets and, more recently, on wearables.

Linux gaming is also on the rise with Valve showing its support for Linux and rolling out SteamOS , its own gaming-oriented Linux distribution.

Linux distributions have also gained popularity with various local and national governments, such as the federal government of Brazil.

Greg Kroah-Hartman is the lead maintainer for the Linux kernel and guides its development. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries.

Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions.

Many open source developers agree that the Linux kernel was not designed but rather evolved through natural selection. Torvalds considers that although the design of Unix served as a scaffolding, "Linux grew with a lot of mutations - and because the mutations were less than random, they were faster and more directed than alpha-particles in DNA.

From nearly the beginning, it was rather casually hacked on by huge numbers of volunteers coordinating only through the Internet. Quality was maintained not by rigid standards or autocracy but by the naively simple strategy of releasing every week and getting feedback from hundreds of users within days, creating a sort of rapid Darwinian selection on the mutations introduced by developers.

Such a system uses a monolithic kernel , the Linux kernel , which handles process control, networking, access to the peripherals , and file systems.

Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel, or added as modules that are loaded while the system is running.

The GNU userland is a key part of most systems based on the Linux kernel, with Android being the notable exception. The Project's implementation of the C library works as a wrapper for the system calls of the Linux kernel necessary to the kernel-userspace interface, the toolchain is a broad collection of programming tools vital to Linux development including the compilers used to build the Linux kernel itself , and the coreutils implement many basic Unix tools.

The project also develops Bash , a popular CLI shell. The graphical user interface or GUI used by most Linux systems is built on top of an implementation of the X Window System.

Many other open-source software projects contribute to Linux systems. Installed components of a Linux system include the following: [72] [73].

The user interface , also known as the shell , is either a command-line interface CLI , a graphical user interface GUI , or controls attached to the associated hardware, which is common for embedded systems.

For desktop systems, the default user interface is usually graphical, although the CLI is commonly available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console.

CLI shells are text-based user interfaces, which use text for both input and output. The dominant shell used in Linux is the Bourne-Again Shell bash , originally developed for the GNU project.

Most low-level Linux components, including various parts of the userland , use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks and provides very simple inter-process communication.

On desktop systems, the most popular user interfaces are the GUI shells , packaged together with extensive desktop environments , such as KDE Plasma , GNOME , MATE , Cinnamon , LXDE , Pantheon and Xfce , though a variety of additional user interfaces exist.

Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System , often simply called "X". It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application; however, certain extensions of the X Window System are not capable of working over the network.

Org Server , being the most popular. Server distributions might provide a command-line interface for developers and administrators, but provide a custom interface towards end-users, designed for the use-case of the system.

This custom interface is accessed through a client that resides on another system, not necessarily Linux based.

Several types of window managers exist for X11, including tiling , dynamic , stacking and compositing. Window managers provide means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows, and interact with the X Window System.

Simpler X window managers such as dwm , ratpoison , i3wm , or herbstluftwm provide a minimalist functionality, while more elaborate window managers such as FVWM , Enlightenment or Window Maker provide more features such as a built-in taskbar and themes , but are still lightweight when compared to desktop environments.

Desktop environments include window managers as part of their standard installations, such as Mutter GNOME , KWin KDE or Xfwm xfce , although users may choose to use a different window manager if preferred.

Wayland is a display server protocol intended as a replacement for the X11 protocol; as of [update] , it has not received wider adoption.

Unlike X11, Wayland does not need an external window manager and compositing manager. Therefore, a Wayland compositor takes the role of the display server, window manager and compositing manager.

Weston is the reference implementation of Wayland, while GNOME's Mutter and KDE's KWin are being ported to Wayland as standalone display servers.

Enlightenment has already been successfully ported since version Linux currently has two modern kernel-userspace APIs for handling video input devices: V4L2 API for video streams and radio, and DVB API for digital TV reception.

Due to the complexity and diversity of different devices, and due to the large number of formats and standards handled by those APIs, this infrastructure needs to evolve to better fit other devices.

Also, a good userspace device library is the key of the success for having userspace applications to be able to work with all formats supported by those devices.

The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open-source software.

Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is by far the most widely used. The most common free software license, the GNU General Public License GPL , is a form of copyleft, and is used for the Linux kernel and many of the components from the GNU Project.

Linux-based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards.

Linux systems adhere to POSIX , [80] SUS , [81] LSB , ISO , and ANSI standards where possible, although to date only one Linux distribution has been POSIX.

Free software projects, although developed through collaboration , are often produced independently of each other. The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, however, provides a basis for larger-scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution.

Many Linux distributions manage a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection.

This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs. Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial entities.

A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole.

Distributions typically use a package manager such as apt , yum , zypper , pacman or portage to install, remove, and update all of a system's software from one central location.

A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, Debian being a well-known example.

Others maintain a community version of their commercial distributions, as Red Hat does with Fedora , and SUSE does with openSUSE. In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux User Groups LUGs seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software.

They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers.

Online forums are another means for support, with notable examples being LinuxQuestions. Linux distributions host mailing lists ; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list.

There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. Print magazines on Linux often bundle cover disks that carry software or even complete Linux distributions.

Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell, support, and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software.

A number of corporations, notably Red Hat, Canonical and SUSE , have built a significant business around Linux distributions.

The free software licenses , on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic.

One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business users.

A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks.

Another business model is to give away the software in order to sell hardware. As computer hardware standardized throughout the s, it became more difficult for hardware manufacturers to profit from this tactic, as the OS would run on any manufacturer's computer that shared the same architecture.

Most programming languages support Linux either directly or through third-party community based ports. Many programming languages have a cross-platform reference implementation that supports Linux, for example PHP , Perl , Ruby , Python , Java , Go, Rust and Haskell.

First released in , the LLVM project provides an alternative cross-platform open-source compiler for many languages. BASIC in the form of Visual Basic is supported in such forms as Gambas , FreeBASIC , and XBasic , and in terms of terminal programming or QuickBASIC or Turbo BASIC programming in the form of QB A common feature of Unix-like systems, Linux includes traditional specific-purpose programming languages targeted at scripting , text processing and system configuration and management in general.

Linux distributions support shell scripts , awk , sed and make. Many programs also have an embedded programming language to support configuring or programming themselves.

For example, regular expressions are supported in programs like grep and locate , the traditional Unix MTA Sendmail contains its own Turing complete scripting system, and the advanced text editor GNU Emacs is built around a general purpose Lisp interpreter.

Most distributions also include support for PHP , Perl , Ruby , Python and other dynamic languages. While not as common, Linux also supports C via Mono , Vala , and Scheme.

Guile Scheme acts as an extension language targeting the GNU system utilities, seeking to make the conventionally small, static , compiled C programs of Unix design rapidly and dynamically extensible via an elegant, functional high-level scripting system; many GNU programs can be compiled with optional Guile bindings to this end.

A number of Java Virtual Machines and development kits run on Linux, including the original Sun Microsystems JVM HotSpot , and IBM's J2SE RE, as well as many open-source projects like Kaffe and JikesRVM.

GNOME and KDE are popular desktop environments and provide a framework for developing applications. These projects are based on the GTK and Qt widget toolkits , respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework.

Both support a wide variety of languages. There are a number of Integrated development environments available including Anjuta , Code::Blocks , CodeLite , Eclipse , Geany , ActiveState Komodo , KDevelop , Lazarus , MonoDevelop , NetBeans , and Qt Creator , while the long-established editors Vim , nano and Emacs remain popular.

The Linux kernel is a widely ported operating system kernel, available for devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers; it runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures , including the hand-held ARM -based iPAQ and the IBM mainframes System z9 or System z The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system, such as Macintosh computers [ citation needed ] with both PowerPC and Intel processors , PDAs , video game consoles , portable music players , and mobile phones.

There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux, such as FreedomHEC.

Over time, support for different hardware has improved in Linux, resulting in any off-the-shelf purchase having a "good chance" of being compatible.

In , a new initiative was launched to automatically collect a database of all tested hardware configurations.

Besides the Linux distributions designed for general-purpose use on desktops and servers, distributions may be specialized for different purposes including: computer architecture support, embedded systems , stability, security, localization to a specific region or language, targeting of specific user groups, support for real-time applications, or commitment to a given desktop environment.

Furthermore, some distributions deliberately include only free software. As of [update] , over four hundred Linux distributions are actively developed, with about a dozen distributions being most popular for general-purpose use.

The popularity of Linux on standard desktop computers and laptops has been increasing over the years. No single official Linux desktop exists: rather desktop environments and Linux distributions select components from a pool of free and open-source software with which they construct a GUI implementing some more or less strict design guide.

GNOME, for example, has its human interface guidelines as a design guide, which gives the human—machine interface an important role, not just when doing the graphical design, but also when considering people with disabilities , and even when focusing on security.

The collaborative nature of free software development allows distributed teams to perform language localization of some Linux distributions for use in locales where localizing proprietary systems would not be cost-effective.

For example, the Sinhalese language version of the Knoppix distribution became available significantly before Microsoft translated Windows XP into Sinhalese.

The performance of Linux on the desktop has been a controversial topic; [] for example in Con Kolivas accused the Linux community of favoring performance on servers.

He quit Linux kernel development out of frustration with this lack of focus on the desktop, and then gave a "tell all" interview on the topic.

Projects such as systemd and Upstart deprecated in aim for a faster boot time; the Wayland and Mir projects aim at replacing X11 while enhancing desktop performance, security and appearance.

Many popular applications are available for a wide variety of operating systems. For example, Mozilla Firefox , OpenOffice.

Furthermore, some applications initially developed for Linux, such as Pidgin , and GIMP , were ported to other operating systems including Windows and macOS due to their popularity.

In addition, a growing number of proprietary desktop applications are also supported on Linux, [] such as Autodesk Maya and The Foundry's Nuke in the high-end field of animation and visual effects; see the list of proprietary software for Linux for more details.

There are also several companies that have ported their own or other companies' games to Linux, with Linux also being a supported platform on both the popular Steam and Desura digital-distribution services.

Many other types of applications available for Microsoft Windows and macOS also run on Linux. Commonly, either a free software application will exist which does the functions of an application found on another operating system, or that application will have a version that works on Linux, such as with Skype and some video games like Dota 2 and Team Fortress 2.

Furthermore, the Wine project provides a Windows compatibility layer to run unmodified Windows applications on Linux. It is sponsored by commercial interests including CodeWeavers , which produces a commercial version of the software.

Since , Google has also provided funding to the Wine project. In other cases, where there is no Linux port of some software in areas such as desktop publishing [] and professional audio , [] [] [] there is equivalent software available on Linux.

It is also possible to run applications written for Android on other versions of Linux using Anbox.

Linux was designed considering UNIX compatibility. Its functionality list is quite similar to that of UNIX. It is responsible for all major activities of this operating system.

It consists of various modules and it interacts directly with the underlying hardware. Regardless of the name, each of these tools do the same thing?

Of course, these pieces of software depend upon the presence of a GUI. For GUI-less servers, you will have to depend upon the command-line interface for installation.

Our examples are for Debian-based distributions and Fedora-based distributions. The Debian-based distros will use the apt-get tool for installing software and Fedora-based distros will require the use of the yum tool.

Both work very similarly. To install this using apt-get, the command would like like this:. Still in doubt?

Recall the Easy Lamp Server Installation from earlier? With a single command:. You can install a complete LAMP Linux Apache MySQL PHP server on either a server or desktop distribution.

With Linux you can assure your desktops will be free of trouble, your servers up, and your support requests minimal. For more information to help guide you through your lifetime with Linux, check out the following resources:.

About Us. Sign in. Log into your account. Forgot your password? Password recovery. Recover your password. A distribution focussing mainly on non-technical users, has a pay-what-you-want model.

Based on Xubuntu designed to facilitate the repacking of computers donated to Emmaüs Communities. GalliumOS is a Linux distribution for Chrome OS devices, developed by the community-supported GalliumOS project.

Gallium is based on Xubuntu and maintains compatibility with the Ubuntu repositories. A version adapted for use by France 's National Gendarmerie.

An Ubuntu-based distribution that was used internally by Google until changing to non-Ubuntu, Debian-based GLinux ; not available outside of Google.

Used the GNOME desktop environment with user interface enhancements to make it work more like Mac OS X , it also featured Google Apps , Picasa , Google Gadgets and other web-based applications, and came with Wine 1.

Now discontinued. Joli OS formerly named Jolicloud is in development and Pre-beta testing. Joli OS is built upon Debian and Ubuntu 9.

It is designed to run on relatively low-powered netbook computers. A formerly PCLinuxOS -based distribution designed for use in schools.

Focused on the development of KDE. The emphasis is on bleeding edge software packages sourced directly from KDE and offers programmers early access to new features , but potentially at the cost of greater susceptibility to software bugs.

A project by the city council of Munich , Germany. The purpose of Linux Lite is to introduce Windows users to Linux , and provide them with a comfortable and useful user experience.

It is designed to be simple and suitable for new Linux users who want a lightweight, highly responsive, and fully functional environment.

Linux Mint synchronizes its release-cycle with Ubuntu's long term support, and is tailored to user-friendliness for desktop users.

It's also used by Mint developers to develop their Cinnamon desktop. Linux Media Center Edition , a Kubuntu-based distribution that provides in-depth HTPC functionality as well as home automation.

A Thai Linux distribution [57]. A distribution by the Generalitat Valenciana [58]. Stands for Ma drid Linu X [59]. Ubuntu based initiative to introduce the Castile-La Mancha community in Spain to the information society.

Kubuntu based distribution with complete software and codecs installed, developed by Blue Systems also sponsoring Kubuntu and LinuxMintKDE.

Cuban state-sponsored distribution developed at the University of Information Science , Havana. Formerly based on Gentoo. Ubuntu based distribution with Enlightenment window manager, previously known as Geubuntu.

A light-weight LXDE distribution for cloud applications through its own Ice Framework using the Chromium Web Browser.

Based on Lubuntu [63]. An Ubuntu-based distro for people that have never used Linux before or for people that want an out-of-the-box working OS without having to tweak a fresh installation of Ubuntu or other Ubuntu-based distro.

An Ubuntu-based distro developed by System76 predominantly for use on hardware that they manufacture. For academic and scientific use.

Ubuntu based distribution for Muslims formerly Ubuntu Muslim Edition [65]. Fully free-software system without proprietary software or firmware and uses the Linux-libre kernel, based on Ubuntu LTS Releases [66].

For higher education and advanced secondary students, those who teach them, and lifelong learners [67]. Using the Unity user interface [68].

Ututo UL "Ubuntu-Libre" Distributes Simusol, a system to simulate Solar Energy projects, returned to the heart of the project. A Linux distribution designed for visually impaired users [70].

Zorin OS is a user-friendly distribution that can emulate Microsoft Windows or Mac OSX. It is meant for users unfamiliar with Linux.

A distrubution developed for the Russian Army with raised security. Bharat Operating System Solutions BOSS. An Indian Linux distribution [73].

A Venezuelan Linux distribution. Short-lived commercial desktop Linux distribution, bought by Xandros Linux. A fork of Debian begun in with the primary goal of allowing user choice in init systems, by decoupling software packages from systemd.

A small-footprint Linux distribution based on and compatible with Debian, intended for use on resource-limited embedded systems.

A small system-administration Live CD that is available for multiple architectures [80]. Originally based on Ubuntu and later upon Debian , and developed with sponsorship from the Free Software Foundation.

Its goal is user-friendliness, but with all proprietary e. Live CD for system recovery [81]. Designed for senior citizens running old computers for which Windows has become too slow [82].

Earlier, it was a version of the Knoppix distribution, modified with Debian and designed for Brazilian users. The Linux Embedded Appliance Framework.

A tiny primarily floppy-based distribution for routers, firewalls and other appliances. An ISO industry workplace certified Linux distribution, deployed at the City of Munich , Germany.

A development platform for hand held devices such as the Nokia N , N , and Nokia N Internet Tablets and other Linux kernel—based devices.

Focuses on ease of use. Also includes a lightweight variant called antiX. There is also a Xfce distro called MX Linux that's based on Debian Stable.

For PowerPC computers. Although MintPPC uses some Linux Mint Debian Edition code, it is not Linux Mint. Intended for music production, graphic design, audio, video editing, and other tasks.

It is built with only free software. A Debian- and Morphix-based distribution focused for desktop usage in Nepali language computing.

Debian packages and ROM image for the Sharp Zaurus PDA. Developed by Turkish National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology.

Prior to it used PISI as the package manager, with COMAR as the configuration framework. Starting with Pardus , it is Debian-based. Dedicated to setting up a computer cluster.

Desktop-oriented distribution, formerly called Raspbian. Developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation as the official OS for their family of low-power single-board computers.

A Linux distribution from Norway, now the basepoint for and now synonymous to Debian EDU. It provides as a thin client distribution for schools.

Slax is a light-weight Linux distribution now based on Debian, for low-powered computers. It's download size is about MB, almost the same as Puppy Linux's.

It can run from RAM, from Live CD, USB or Hard drive. It was previously based on Slackware. Xfce and KDE desktop focused on stability, security and ease of use.

SparkyLinux is a Debian-based Linux distribution which provides ready to use, out of the box operating system with a set of slightly customized lightweight desktops.

Sparky is targeted to all the computer's users who want replace existing, proprietary driven OS to an open-sourced.. Debian-based and gaming-focused distribution developed by Valve and designed around the Steam digital distribution platform.

A Chinese Linux distribution [94].

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